Guide A History of Disability

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The History of Disability: A History of 'Otherness'
Contents:
  1. Search form
  2. History of disability in New Zealand
  3. Disability in History | Perspectives on History | AHA
  4. Disability in History

The book will be of interest to scholars of disability, historians, social scientists, cultural anthropologists, and those who are intrigued by the role that culture plays in the development of language and thought surrounding the disabled. Western Antiquity The Fear of the Gods. The Systems of Charity.

The Classical Centuries The Chill. The Birth of Rehabilitation. Stages in the Legislation. Selected Bibliography. It was hypothesized that those areas of child development which were most severely disciplined would create high levels of anxiety and would also be incorporated in theories of illness within the society.

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This hypothesis was supported. Also supported was the hypothesis that societies with the most severe socialization practices would create the highest degree of anxiety and guilt, and therefore would tend to blame the patient as the cause of illness. It would seem that specific values attached to body parts and their functions would be related to the significance that is given to them within specific cultural settings based on the influences of language, religion and ethnic identity.

Wright observed that knowledge about the self is built up through sensory experience, through the view points of others, and through inference based on these sources. This makes it possible for the body to become invested with significance beyond its concretely appraised function. As a result, body parts may assume such connotations as good and bad, clean and unclean, adequate and inadequate. The impact of sub-culture membership on the individual's response to persons with disabilities is illustrated by studies conducted by Richardson, Goodman, Hastorf and Dornbusch, Richard and Hastorf Their research shows that adults and children of the same sub-culture Italian and Jewish are consistent in their preferential ordering of photographs of children with various physical disabilities.

Gellman suggests that cues learned in childhood serve as guides for distinguishing and differentiating various types of disabilities in accordance with socially accepted norms. He indicates, for example, that Eskimos perceive a limited number of disabilities, whereas Americans generally use a large number of terms for persons with disabilities. The meaning of one's own disabled physique to a person with a disability and to others who interact with him or her will depend in general upon the values of the cultural group to which they belong Barker et al.

The affective attitudes discussed by Wright ibid include pity, fear, uneasiness, guilt, genuine, sympathy and respect. These attributes are distinctly divided into positive and negative categories, and are likely to critically affect the relationship between persons with disabilities and non-disabled people.

They form some of the attitudes which can stigmatize persons with disabilities, impose artificial limitations upon them, deny them equal opportunities for development and living, and inequitably demote them to second-class citizens to be pitied in the sense where pity is seen as devaluation tinged with contempt. As Wright further observed: "Attitudes and behavior towards physical deviations are tenaciously held and transmitted to the young as much because they are felt to fit with sound and comprehensive beliefs and because of less clear emotional prejudice" Wright pg.

As Goffman pg. In many instances, the initial response is to place the individual in a predetermined category based on what is assumed to be his or her attributes and status based on exterior visage. Attitudes towards persons with disabilities are compounded by the fact that in many instances a person's disability is perceived as extending far beyond the necessary limits of the disability to affected traits and functions Jaffe From such attitudes, stigma results:.

When one falls into stigmatized category or possesses an undesirable attributes, those not of this category tend to devalue the stigmatized individual, to practice the variation of discrimination, and to impute a wide range of imperfection on the basis of the original one, and at the same time to impute some desirable but undesirable attributes often of the supernatural cast, such as sixth sense or understanding to the stigmatized individual.

Goff man, pg 5 Op Cit. Wright describes this phenomenon of stigma extension as takes place when a person with a disability is seen as disabled not only with respect to the specific area of disability, but also to other characteristics, such as personality and adjustment. Physique as well as certain other personal characteristics has an enormous power to evoke a wide variety of expressions and feelings about the person. In fact, physical deviation is frequently seen as central key to a person's behavior and personality and largely responsible for the important ramifications in a person's life.

This spread holds for both the person with a disability himself and those evaluating him.

Wright pg. Prevailing attitudes not only determine the social expectations and treatment accorded to a person with a disability in the society, but also his or her self-image and function. Hobbs states that, the message that a child with a disability receives about himself from his environment determines to a large extent his feelings about who he is, what he can do and how he should behave.


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Parsons views this process as the internalization of role expectancy. Thus, if parents perceive their child as different from what is considered "normal," Franzen Bjorn , they will more than likely treat him or her differently, thereby encouraging him or her to become as perceived Hobbs Internalization of role expectancy occurs at both the individual and at the group level. Since few non-disabled people in the larger society interact directly with persons with disabilities, they rely heavily upon stereotype in their response to persons with disabilities.

Wright describes the self-concept as a "social looking glass. The self-image of persons with disabilities is therefore more often than not a reflection of social stereotypes or reactions to them. Rejection, for example, produces inferiority, self-consciousness and fear Barker et al. Thus, community attitudes affect self-perception. They also limit the opportunity to associate with others, the extent of one's mobility and the possibilities of employment Hobbs, Persons with disabilities frequently find their opportunities limited because of social rejection, discriminatory employment practices, architectural barriers and inaccessibility to transport.

In this context, therefore, societal attitudes are significant since they largely determine the extent to which the personal, social, educational and psychological needs of persons with disabilities will be realized Jaffe, ; Park, In the field of education, perceptions towards children and adults with disabilities have changed significantly. The greatest challenge in education today, according to Birch and Johnstone , is ensuring that all schools are as readily and fully accessible to persons with disabilities as to the non-disabled.

From every standpoint, whether that of human rights, economic efficiency, or social desirability, the national interest should be to serve children with disabilities equally with all others. Putting this concept into practice means turning away from the traditional segregation of persons with disabilities.

History of disability in New Zealand

Many writers reviewed here stress the importance of changes in attitudes, behavior and socio-educational structures. Critical to the mainstreaming efforts is the necessity of change, not only on the part of the individual, but also in the social and cultural atmosphere that promotes helplessness on the part of people with disabilities.

Those labeled "handicapped" are treated differently by our society which seemingly emphasizes on the disability of the individual instead of their ability, which works against the individual Birch pg Recent international and national legislation has cast increasing light on the philosophy of inclusion and inclusive schooling. The Salamanca Statement and framework for Action promulgate education for every individual as a basic human right for all, irrespective of individual differences UNESCO Further, international focus through the "Education For All", a United Nation Convention on the Rights of Children; the Jomtien Declaration; and the World Summit on children, required countries to commit themselves in providing education to all children including marginalized children United Nations Organization These international developments have impacted on national policy and practice.

According to the U. Standard Rules on the Equalization of Oppotunities for Persons with Disabilities , "States should recognize the principle of equal primary, secondary and tertiary educational opportunities for youth and adults with disabilities in integrated settings. They should ensure that the education of persons with disabilities is an integral part of the educational system".

EDUCATE-ABLE: A History of Educating Children With Disabilities in America

This is a specific support for inclusive education. In Kenya, the constitution supports inclusive education. The Persons with Disabilities Act, part 3 article 18 states that:. Further, the ministry of education adopted a national policy on special needs education in Children's right to basic education including special needs education is also provided in the Children's Act Section IV of the Jordanian Law for the Welfare of Disabled Persons states that a person with a disability must be provided with an appropriate education according to his or her disability.

The phrase "student with special needs" is defined as a student with medical diagnoses i. The phrases "student with behavior problems" and "student with speech and language problems" are also used Al-Rossan ; Al-Khatteeb In Australia, the philosophy of inclusive education has followed international trends, with the continent accepting the challenge to educate all students in mainstream settings in an equitable manner Forlin The enactment of federal legislation in the form of the Disability Discrimination Act and the release of the standards for education Act ensure that children with disabilities have greater opportunities to enroll in their local schools.

The government posits that the standards will: "Clarify the obligations of education and training service providers under the DDA, and the right of people with disabilities in all sectors of education and training in both public and non-government educational institutions" Sharma et al.

Educational authorities and regular classroom teachers are now required to support students with disabilities to ensure that they are able to access the curriculum. The Disability Discrimination Act has been a significant national policy change to inclusive education. A recent initiative by the Federal Government, called the Draft Disability Standards for Education, further amends the DDA and increases the opportunities for students with disabilities to be educated in mainstream schools Commonwealth of Australia.


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  8. As a federal state of Australia, Victoria is viewed as a strong and active advocate for inclusive education Forlin Significant developments towards implementing inclusive education in Victoria have been influenced by a number of policy initiatives that include the Ministerial Report of Educational Services for the Disabled , The Cullen-Brown Report and more recently the Blueprint for Government schools in Victoria These initiatives have highlighted the need for students to be educated in their neighbourhood school.

    In , it adopted a decree on compulsory education, which includes disabled children. Similarly, in China, the Law on Compulsory Education and the Law of the Protection of the Rights of the Disabled have required and empowered provinces to introduce education for all. From a historical perspective, this article has focused on cross-cultural factors that influence the development of perceptions towards children and adults with disabilities. Societal attitudes are significant since they determine to a large degree the extent to which the personal, social, educational and psychological needs of persons with disabilities will be realized.

    To this end, efforts to eliminate all forms of prejudices and discrimination against persons with disabilities by some of the UN agencies, governments, and national and international disability organizations are bearing fruit.

    Disability in History | Perspectives on History | AHA

    Introduction Over the years, perceptions towards disability have varied significantly from one community to another. Categorization and its Effects As Goffman pg. From such attitudes, stigma results: When one falls into stigmatized category or possesses an undesirable attributes, those not of this category tend to devalue the stigmatized individual, to practice the variation of discrimination, and to impute a wide range of imperfection on the basis of the original one, and at the same time to impute some desirable but undesirable attributes often of the supernatural cast, such as sixth sense or understanding to the stigmatized individual.

    Education In the field of education, perceptions towards children and adults with disabilities have changed significantly.

    Disability in History

    The Persons with Disabilities Act, part 3 article 18 states that: "No person or learning institution shall deny admission to a person with a disability to any course of study by reason only of such disability, if the person has the ability to acquire substantial learning in that course; Learning institutions shall take into account the special needs of persons with disabilities with respect to the entry requirements, pass marks, curriculum, examinations, auxiliary services, use of school facilities, class schedules, physical education requirements and other similar considerations; Special schools and institutions, especially for the deaf, the blind and the mentally retarded, shall be established to cater for formal education, skill development and self reliance".

    Conclusion From a historical perspective, this article has focused on cross-cultural factors that influence the development of perceptions towards children and adults with disabilities. References Abosi, C. Educating the blind: A descriptive approach. Ibadan: Spectrum Books. Aillo, B. Mainstreaming definition, development and characteristics.

    Making it work: Practical ideas for integrating exceptional children into regular classroom. Reston, VA: Council for Exceptional children. Al-Khatteeb, J. Teaching students in inclusive schools: Dar Waal. Amman, Jordan. Educational Journal , 65, Amoak, J. Division of Rehabilitation Status Report. Barker, R.

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