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  1. The Friday Cover
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There is an understanding rarely made explicit that large campaign donations buy political access and favourable consideration in policy development and legislation.

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Why else would a corporation, which is bound by law to pursue profits, make these donations? Interestingly, many businesses give money to both sides of the narrow political divide; sometimes different amounts, sometimes exactly the same amount. This is not unique to Australia but occurs in all democracies, just indirectly in those places where direct political donations from corporations are illegal. Donating equally to both sides is clearly not about helping one side win. This is the aim of many political donations from businesses who stand to lose from policy changes that would be popular with the electorate.

Only areas of difference between contenders end up being discussion points during elections, the rest is passed over in silence. Such a big deal is made out of the few policy differences between major parties that during campaigns they can appear to be poles apart. However, as I have discussed previously , the main contenders in developed democracies are actually very closely aligned with respect to political ideology and policy — particularly economic policy. During their last term in office, the minority federal Labor government in Australia were more or less forced by independent MP Andrew Wilkie to attempt to implement restrictions on poker machine gambling.

Prior to the discussion of reforms beginning, gaming industry lobby groups were giving similar amounts of money to both major parties but slightly favouring Labor. As soon as Labor started talking seriously about reform, the donations began to dramatically favour the opposition Liberals. The leader of the Liberal party, Tony Abbott, came out strongly against the reforms and they were eventually abandoned. It refuses to acknowledge that their religious belief is that execution of the documents is sinful. Rather, it reframes their belief But it is not the job of the judiciary to tell people what their religious beliefs are The Obama administration argued that the judges should and could decide for the Sisters what their belief really was.

Obama appointee Matheson made exactly that judgment. To date, his and Obama's novel argument has lost in the courts. But given eight years of Obama appointees to the courts, the Obama administration's argument could take hold. Conscience protections would evaporate. Obama transformed the Left's culture war stance from "live and let live" to "bake me a cake, or else.

His Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, for instance, ruled that a Catholic school in Georgia must keep a gay teacher employed after he publicly announced he was marrying a man, in essence saying that codes of behavior grounded in ancient religious teaching were illegal if they clashed with modern ideas about non-discrimination that even Obama himself rejected just a few years ago. The president's biggest long-run impact on religious liberty may be less his legal arguments and judicial appointees than his bold political decision to provoke a culture war.

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Through executive regulatory processes, Obama mandated contraception coverage even though the Affordable Care Act doesn't call for it. Then he not the law itself chose to make the religious exemptions narrow. When Republicans pushed back, Obama's team dialed the culture war up to maximum volume, making the mandate and religious conservatives' requests for exemptions a centerpiece of the campaign.

Obama even put law student Sandra Fluke on stage at the Democratic National Convention in prime time to argue that allowing employers to choose whether to pay for their employees' contraceptives amounted to letting bosses "control" "access to birth control. In short, Obama trolled religious conservatives. He forced them to do something they found immoral, and when they asked to be left alone, he blasted them as misogynistic theocrats. This Obama approach spread throughout elite culture. After the Supreme Court obliged states to conduct gay marriages, Apple CEO Tim Cook took to the pages of the Washington Post to portray wedding photographers and bakers as the ones imposing their morality.

Democrats in the s championed the Religious Freedom Restoration Act. This battleground, prepared by Obama, will be where future cultural battles are fought. Will Catholic hospitals be forced to perform abortions? Will Washington crack down on homeschoolers?

President Obama has declared open-season on gun rights, moving gun control from a cause championed only by a passionate minority of the party's base to a central plank in the platform, and a sine qua non for any Democrat with ambitions. If Democrats maintain the gun-control stance that Obama has prescribed, it's only a matter of time before they break down Second Amendment protections that have long stymied gun-controllers. Obama didn't move the ball legislatively, but he declared war, and his party followed him, both in ambitious gun-control policy and bombastic rhetoric.

Gun control was dead in when Obama ran for president. The Heller decision, affirming the individual right to bear arms, came down at the beginning of Obama's general-election run that year, and the presumptive nominee barely said a word. But last Thursday, when the court expressly and historically extended the right of gun ownership to private citizens, the Democratic Party's nominee for president merely shrugged.

Eight years later, Heller and the Second Amendment still stand, but an army is now arrayed against it. The army is the Democratic Party, and they were led to this battle by the president. After he won re-election, and after the school massacre at Sandy Hook, Conn. On a stage filled with children, Obama announced 23 gun-related executive orders in January , which beefed up background checks, among other things.

He wrapped up his State of the Union address that month with a barn-burning bit of rhetorical fire, demanding a vote on gun control. He began demanding Congress pass gun laws "if there's even one life that can be saved. Policy-wise, some Democrats took up Obama's flag, and called for a new "assault-weapon ban," which would outlaw many rifles. Senate Democratic leaders, along with Pennsylvania Republican Pat Toomey, in pushed a bill requiring universal background checks, including many private sales.

In , Democrats, along with Maine Republican Susan Collins, championed a bill to strip gun rights from all individuals on terror watch lists and no-fly lists. This assault on due process, and the willingness of supposedly serious lawmakers like Warren to engage in flat demagoguery, reflected how far Obama had pulled his party in eight years. His judicial appointees agree.

In a gun-control case, three liberal justices, including Sotomayor, Obama's only appointee at the time, rejected a core idea of Heller , that individuals have the right to bear arms. Kagan wasn't on the court then, but her career reveals a sclerotic view of the Second Amendment. There's an obvious argument: The no-fly list is created without transparency or oversight. Individuals are added to the list without due process, and there is no process for getting removed. Taking away gun rights based on this list seems to violate the Fifth Amendment, which includes the words, "No person shall be deprived of life, liberty or property, without due process of law.

Obama's endorsement of congressional Democrats' "No Fly-No Buy" ploy cemented the party as squarely opposed to both the Second and Fifth Amendments, a position that held firm throughout the Democratic National Convention. This fits the pattern of Obama's legacy on other civil liberties protected in the Bill of Rights: If you think of other recent presidents, especially President George W. Bush, as workmen who chiseled away at civil liberties, and set down their pick axe, Obama has taken up that axe and continued their work of cracking the foundation of due process and privacy rights.

Anwar al-Awlaki was an American citizen who had never been convicted, or even charged with a crime when Obama ordered him killed by a drone strike in Policies that increase the availability of cheap goods and services which make good profit to the seller disproportionately affect those that cannot afford to pay for government red tape and taxes.

  1. Proceedings of the Ninth International Congress on Mathematical Education: 2000 Makuhari Japan;
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They cannot afford the protectionism of the left, either the exclusion from jobs or the expense of services. Policies that allow people to more easily start their own businesses disproportionately affect the poor, because they cannot afford accountants and solicitors, and can get employment from new firms. The rich are fine either way, and often prosper under excessive government of Labour they can avoid taxes or just leave; they can afford to deal with regulation to start or sustain businesses. The middle class are fine with the evils of socialism, they will manage.

It is the poor that need liberal economic policy and small government.

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  • But it does seem rather hasty to assume that anyone who supports the Tories must do so for morally abhorrent reasons e. As Person notes above, some simply think that free market policies are a more effective means to bringing about better results for all. So a little more argumentative support really would seem to be needed here…. I think this needs to distinguish between moral and empirical disagreements, and explain why to privilege a particular red line for shunning. That would be quite in line with anti-racism and the inclusion of all ethnicities into our moral calculus, and is a question clearly within subject matter of philosophy.

    All of the parties propose to continue to permit animal agriculture. So should we shun everyone who votes?


    Presumably not, since this would achieve little and forgo access to many fruitful contributions from and opportunities to cooperate with people who vote. But one can ask the same questions about a narrower group, e. There are people with strong religious views with whom I would disagree strongly. But shunning and successfully excluding everyone with conservative views would result in the deaths of hundreds of innocent children. I think that would be terrible.

    More broadly, religious people and conservatives privately give more to charity, and to specifically foreign aid charities, than their complements. Shunning these people, e. Both David Cameron and George W. Had those interlocutors instead engaged in shunning, they could have lead to at least hundreds of thousands of deaths. Shunning all commercial and scientific interactions with those who disagree would likewise mean lower standards of living for shunners and shunned , slower economic growth, slower technological progress, and large humanitarian consequences.

    Moreover, a shift from cooperative to antagonistic equilibria may provoke backlash. By and large in survey research the public underestimates the degree of ideological distance between itself and areas such as academia, and there is substantial public respect for science as a neutral source of truth which can receive bipartisan support.

    Campaign Finance & Free Speech

    Perceptions of hostile partisanship and ideological discrimination can further weaken that trust and the security of public support and finding for research. Legitimation of ideological discrimination may also empower similar discrimination in business and the military where conservatives of one kind or another are in the majority. It is possible that an easy victory where shunning by academics leads to the rapid conversion of the opposition would greatly outweigh such costs, rather than continued separated polarization, but that is a complex empirical question of political science, strategy, economics, psychology.

    Philosophy alone seems inadequate to justify such a specific practice of shunning while letting off others for endorsing harms of similar magnitude , though it might support a broad deontological shunning. The role of empirical social science relative to philosophy also comes up with respect to the particulars of selecting small proportional adjustments to the scope of the welfare state and state ownership of industry as grounds for shunning.

    For example, it is clearly possible to have a public sector and effective tax rates that are too large for aggregate welfare, as well as ones that are too small. Tens of millions starved to death in China and the Soviet Union due to high effective tax rates on farmers in collectivized agriculture, and billions were kept in poverty in China and India under communism and socialism respectively.

    Conversely, market reforms in those two countries have contributed a large share of the poverty reduction of the last century with most of the rest going to technological improvements from science and business. Debates in rich countries are far from the extremes of Maoist China or the license raj in India, but they concern small proportional changes in a background context of social spending and redistribution that makes up a large share of a very high per capita GDP, with social safety nets that are very large.