- Electrical, Optical, and Magnetic Properties of Materials
- Electrical, Optical and Magnetic Properties of Nucleic acid and Components - 1st Edition
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Electrical, Optical, and Magnetic Properties of Materials
The third workshop of the Action was held in connection with the third European Conference on "Molecular Electronics", which took place in Leuven B in September There were a considerable number of papers presented on various aspects of nanoscale science and technology, which is particularly relevant to a COST-orientated conference in in this field. The Management Committee was concerned whether there were any particular problems associated with the collaborative project, and how many PhD doctorate students are associated with the project, both directly and indirectly. The Management Committee has also requested that it should receive one copy of any relevant publications, and that such publications should acknowledge the participation of COST.
Six Working Group meetings, in the fields of liquid crystals, conducting polymers, advanced photochromism and non-linear optics, were held in and six more in Seven applications for Short-Term Scientific Mission grants were received, and have been approved. The COST Action D4 is due to formally end on 13 Sep , but the present Management Committee is currently examining those areas of activity likely to continue to expand and develop.
In the meantime, the Management Committee has decided that it will be necessary to request a year's prolongation to finish the Action activities. Topic s 13 - Chemistry. Administrative Contact Ms.
Electrical, Optical and Magnetic Properties of Nucleic acid and Components - 1st Edition
Sort alphabetically Expand all. Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Belgium.
Universidad de Zaragoza Spain. Universite de Mons Belgium. Universiteit Nijmegen Netherlands. University College Belfield Ireland. University College Galway Ireland. University of Wroclaw Poland. Study of optical, electrical and magnetic properties of composite nanomaterials on the basis of broadband oxide semiconductors.
Authors Authors and affiliations O. Kononenko A.
Panin A. Baranov A. Firsov V. Levashov V. Matveev E. Articles First Online: 03 January This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Gruzintsev, A. Yakimov, Z. Makovei, C. Barthou, and P. CrossRef Google Scholar. Kim and H. ADS Google Scholar.
Ham, G. Shen, J. Cho, T. Lee, S. Seo, and Ch. He and Y. Google Scholar. Jiang, G. Li, Q. Ji, and H. Wang, C. Liu, J. Huang, S. Chen, Y. Tseng, and S. Hsu, A. Djurisic, and K. Growth , 47—52 Xu, K. Yu, G. Li, and Z. Wu, H.
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Yan, and P. Li, C. Lee, and T. Growth , — Kim, Sh. Fujita, and Sh. Park, H.
Choi, K. Siebein, and R. Growth 3—4 , — Kong and H. Wang, X. Zhang, S. Zhao, G. Zhou, Y. Zhou, and J. Liu, P. Cao, H. Extensive materials research is required to make low-cost high-reliability blue-green lasers commercially available see Box 1. The third emerging development is near-field optical recording. Flying a special design optical head very close to the storage medium allows write and read spots smaller than the wavelength of laser light.
This direct outgrowth of condensed-matter and materials physics and optical physics was initiated in when British scientist E.
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Synge proposed the physics of near-field optics for microwaves. The first near-field visible optical microscope was not constructed until the late s, after the invention of the scanning-tunneling microscope STM in The STM created the technology required for scanning a small tip in a controlled manner a specified distance away from a surface with atomic-scale resolution. Near-field technology has the potential for data storage density one to two orders of magnitude higher than conventional optical and magnetic storage projections to the year Another potential advantage of this technology is the ability to use very low mass optical heads mounted directly onto sliders that have been developed for magnetic storage to reduce seek times.
The fourth development on the horizon is holographic data storage. In holographic storage a page of binary data is stored as pixels of a monochrome image. It is possible to record thousands of holograms in a spot of a storage medium with resolution on the order of the wavelength of light. Because of the three-dimensional capability, holographic storage promises a projected density two to three orders of magnitude larger than conventional optical storage. In addition, it has extremely high data rates because an entire image is transferred simultaneously.
Development of low-cost, reliable, blue-green lasers and solid-state spatial light modulators, along with low-cost, robust, and reliable storage media for three-dimensional holograms, are needed to enable commercialization of the technology. Serious materials problems hampered research efforts concerned with the growth of quantum wells of these materials in the s and s, however: there was no bulk substrate crystal for lattice matching; high impurity concentrations during growth permitted growth of only very high concentration n-type material; and the relatively deep levels of p-type donors made it difficult to achieve p-type material required for current injection devices.
By the mids most major U. Two groups in Japan, lead by Akasaki and Nakamura, continued to try to improve materials properties in the far more robust GaN system. A major breakthrough was reported in by the Akasaki group, who found p-type material after exposing as-grown GaN to an electron beam in an electron microscope. Soon thereafter Nakamura discovered that GaN grown by standard metalloorganic chemical vapor deposition was passivated by a high density of H impurities. With these breakthroughs in understanding, Nakamura was able to produce n-type material.
By Nichia Chemical announced blue, and soon thereafter green, light-emitting diodes LEDs with extended color range. These early diodes had external quantum efficiencies higher than 5 percent, five times higher than the competing yellow-green lasers in the AlInGaP materials system. The high efficiencies of commercial LEDs in the AlGaAs and InGaN materials have opened up new markets in vehicle and brake running lights, and in highway status and traffic control signs. The addition of blue and green LEDs rounds out the visible spectrum and opens up new markets in long-life traffic lights and high efficiency, high brightness, white lighting systems.
In these LEDs were already incorporated into commercial full-color displays. Exciting recent developments in synthesis of semiconducting organic materials have enabled researchers to demonstrate a variety of optoelectronic devices based on electronically active organics. These include light-emitting diodes, thin-film transistors, photovoltaics, and nonlinear optical elements. The great potential for these devices resides primarily in the ability to process organics using cost-effective methods such as spin casting and screen printing, not in performance considerations.
The potential to produce large-area devices and. Application of organic materials in electrophotographic photoreceptors is already commercially successful.