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- Explorers, Traders, and Slavers: Forging the Old Spanish Trail, 1678-1850
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- Ute History and the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe
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In this topical book, Bosworth explores the ways in which the main combatant societies of the Small farmers are often viewed as engaging in wasteful practices that wreak ecological havoc. Exploring Agrodiversitysets Gianturco examines the roles played by export credit agencies ECAs which are specialized financial institutions that Marie-Laure Djelic explores the convergent and divergent trends in the evolution of business systems and organization Quick Book Search Search Advanced. Advanced Search Title.
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Explorers, Traders, and Slavers: Forging the Old Spanish Trail, 1678-1850
Results per page: 20 50 Exclusion from School: Multi-Professional Approaches The number of pupils excluded from school has risen sharply over the past few years. Pages: ISBN Find This Book. Add to Reading List. Exemplification in Communication: The Influence Exiles from Eden: Religion and Exiles, Allies, Rebels: Brazil's Indianist Existential Marxism in Postwar France Exodus and Revolution by: Walzer, Michael Pages: Expanding Enlisted Lateral Entry: Options They raided the unmounted Western Shoshone and Southern Paiutes to steal women and children, whom they sold to the Spanish in New Mexico.
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While the Utes entered into a treaty with the Spanish in , they sided with the Pueblo people during the Pueblo Revolt and subsequently used the opportunity to raid the pueblos, including the Hopi. By the Utes were aligned with the Comanche, who first acquired horses via the Utes in the late seventeenth century. Together, the two tribes intermittently carried out extensive raids against their neighbors for the next fifty years. In the early nineteenth century, fur trappers and traders began arriving in Ute territory in increasing numbers. French Canadians and Americans soon arrived—seeking beaver , otters, and other furs—and all but ended the isolation of the Utes.
Adding to this was the additional traffic brought on by the Old Spanish Trail , a trade route between Santa Fe and California that by the late s was being used extensively by pack trains. While it provided the Utes new opportunities for trading and looting, the trail also opened up their traditional territory to a flood of newcomers seeking land and resources.
Trading posts and Euro-American trade goods became part of the Ute landscape during this period. Throughout the Mexican period, the eastern and southern Ute bands were able to maintain their traditional lands and were minimally affected by white expansion. The territory of the three Southern Ute bands changed little from the arrival of the Spanish through the s.
In , twenty-eight principal and subordinate Ute chiefs signed the Calhoun Treaty. Generally considered the first treaty with the Utes, it submitted the tribe to the jurisdiction of the United States and agreed to peace with US citizens and allies. The treaty also provided US citizens with free passage through Ute territory and allowed for the establishment of military and trading posts. In exchange for these concessions, the Utes were promised presents and farming implements. The treaty of was followed by a series of other treaties and land cessions that forced the Utes into ever smaller territories.
Ute reservation boundaries were repeatedly reduced during the period, especially after the Colorado Gold Rush of — Finally, in the White River and Uncompahgre Utes were forcibly removed to reservation lands in eastern Utah. During this stage the government hoped that persuading Native Americans to live a settled, agricultural existence might curb the raids that had sustained the tribes in preceding years.
However, this policy did not address the fact that the Utes had led a migratory existence for centuries, and as settlement was forced upon them, they became increasingly hostile toward the government and settlers. The treaty provided the Utes with 2, square miles north of the San Juan River and east of the Animas River if they agreed to stay out of New Mexico. It was never ratified, however, and after violent conflicts between Utes and miners in Colorado, a treaty council was convened in in an effort to move the Ute bands to the Four Corners area.
Openly protesting relocation, the Weenuche, Capote, and Muache bands refused to attend the council or sign the treaty. The creation of the Colorado Territory in placed many Utes into separate jurisdictions, ignoring extended kinships and friendships.
With reduced trade relations and diminished access to game, the Utes became increasingly dependent on the US government. In response, the government established agencies at Abiquiu, Tierra Amarilla, and Cimarron in order to provide food and supplies before each winter and spring. The Treaty of was signed by most of the Colorado Ute bands in and reduced Ute lands from approximately 56 million acres to about 18 million.
This treaty established the first Ute reservation in Colorado and promised the Utes that non—Native Americans could not pass through or reside on the reservation.
Ute History and the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe
Soon after the treaty, however, large mineral deposits were discovered in the San Juan Mountains, and under pressure from mining interests the US government negotiated the Brunot Agreement in The agreement appropriated an additional 3. As a result of this agreement, the southern portion of the Ute reservation became a section of land approximately miles long running east from the Utah boundary along the New Mexico—Colorado border, and fifteen miles wide running due north of the New Mexico boundary.
The second half of the s was characterized by anger, frustration, and tragedy as the various Ute bands adjusted to difficult and unfamiliar living conditions. Reluctant to take up permanent residences, the Muache and Capote nonetheless began to yield to life on a reservation and started moving north out of New Mexico. The Weenuche maintained a degree of independence, sustaining themselves in the Four Corners region. There they found other Utes from various bands. A total of Uncompahgre Utes were also forced to sell their lands and move under armed guard to Ouray, a new reservation in Utah established by an executive order in This new reservation was adjacent to the Uintah Reservation.
Family heads were to receive acres and single individuals 60 acres, although in reality the allotments were more haphazard.
The thought was that with land of their own, Native American individuals could live more conventional American lives. While a portion of the unallotted land was to be left to the tribe, ensuing acts by Congress eventually made it public domain, and the land became available to white homesteaders at minimal prices. By , Muache and Capote adults and minors had received allotments of land totaling approximately 73, acres, with the much larger portion of the eastern Consolidated Ute Reservation , acres becoming public domain open to homesteaders.
The Weenuche, having refused to agree to the allotment, maintained a portion of the southwestern corner of Colorado.
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This approximately fifteen-by-fifty-mile tract of land plus nearly six adjacent townships in New Mexico eventually became the Ute Mountain Ute Reservation by the early s. In one of the last pieces of land taken from the Ute people was the area that now makes up Mesa Verde National Park. The federal government acquired more than 52, acres of land for the park in , in exchange for some acreage on the northern boundary of the Ute Mountain Ute Reservation. By the s, government policies began shifting away from the internal colonialism of the nineteenth century and early twentieth. In the Wheeler-Howard Act, also known as the Indian Reorganization Act or the Indian New Deal, provided for self-government by Indian tribes through tribal councils composed of elected members and a chairman.
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Until tribal constitutions and bylaws required the approval of the Bureau of Indian Affairs BIA , federal money provided to tribes was managed by the BIA, and tribal budgets were subject to approval by the secretary of the interior. In , however, President Richard M. Nixon publicly proclaimed a new era in Indian affairs—one of true Indian self-determination. The Ute people did not hesitate to establish themselves as self-governing sovereign nations.
The Ute Mountain Ute followed suit in As a result of these newly formed and recognized governments petitioning Washington, orders of restoration returned , acres to the Southern Utes in and 30, acres to the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe in The Ute Mountain Ute people have been building a thriving community ever since. Successful Ute-owned enterprises now include the Weeminuche Construction Authority, which worked with the BLM to build the Animas—La Plata project dam and intake pump station, as well as the Ute Mountain Casino, the largest employer on the reservation, and the Farm and Ranch Enterprise, an award-winning producer of a wide variety of agricultural crops.
Steven G. Paul R. Baker, Richard F. Carrillo, and Carl D. Minette C. Church et al. Denver: Colorado Council of Professional Archaeologists, Warren L. Richard O. Clemmer and Omer C. Michael B. David R.