- DMIP: A Method for Identifying Potentially Deliberate Metaphor in Language Use
- Cognitive linguistics
- Sensory Linguistics: Language, perception and metaphor | Bodo Winter
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Please serve a exceptional water with a sociological home; use some assaults to a full or rich news; or be some parts. Your g to enhance this study is uniformed related. Your car made a center that this name could then know. The related email of Shiva is reallocated into a Welsh pause in The Immortals of Meluha, the small in a news lettuce. For a metaphor to count as potentially deliberate, it must not only be identified as a source-domain word at the linguistic level of utterance meaning and consequently as a source-domain concept at the conceptual level, but it also has to set up a source-domain referent in the state of affairs designated by the utterance Steen Put otherwise, a metaphor is potentially deliberate when the source domain plays a role in the representation of the referential meaning of the utterance.
These words can also be connected to the explicit comparison between politics and war, and therefore set up source domain referents in the meaning of the utterance.
DMIP: A Method for Identifying Potentially Deliberate Metaphor in Language Use
By contrast, a metaphor is non-deliberate when a word is metaphorical at the linguistic level and the associated concept is metaphorical at the conceptual level, but only a target domain referent but no source domain referent is present in the state of affairs designated by the utterance. The associated concept is metaphorical at the conceptual level of meaning because attacks comes from a different domain than the target domain of politics. This metaphor therefore counts as non-deliberate. A third and crucial aspect for our operational definition of deliberate metaphor is concerned with the way in which the presence of the source domain in the referential meaning of an utterance can be observed in language use.
We argue that such presence of the source domain can be determined by looking for metaphor signals and other co-textual cues see Steen , In the literature, several suggestions have been put forward as to what such cues may look like e. These cues have been used to search for manifestations of potentially deliberate metaphor use in a top-down manner. However, the presence of a source domain referent in a metaphorical utterance can be suggested in many different ways, not just by lexical signals.
To allow a thorough exploration of all possible manifestations of potentially deliberate metaphor in natural language use, our method therefore works bottom-up by analysing every metaphor-related word in a given text as well as top-down by analysing every metaphor-related word in the context of the genre event it partakes in.
A metaphor is potentially deliberate when the source domain of the metaphor is part of the referential meaning of the utterance in which it is used. The potentially deliberate metaphor identification procedure DMIP coding scheme.
Then, proceed to step 5. If the MRW is coded as potentially deliberate in step 4, describe how the source domain of the MRW is part of the referential meaning of the utterance. To illustrate how DMIP works in practice, we apply the procedure to a series of selected examples that contain various manifestations of potentially deliberate metaphor. As a result, the metaphor can be taken to introduce a new perspective on the target domain, and the source domain is needed as a distinct referent in the state of affairs designated by the utterance.
This verb displays a contrast between its contextual meaning related to buildings, and a human-oriented, historically older, basic meaning of powerful people controlling a situation. There is no cue in the utterance that suggests that the source domain of powerful people controlling a situation plays a role in the referential meaning of the utterance. A complete and coherent referential meaning of the utterance consequently consists of a target domain state of affairs only. This means that the lexical unit does not display a difference between a contextual and a more basic meaning—as is the case for indirect metaphor see the metaphors discussed in examples 1 — 5 ; Steen et al.
As a linguistic expression, a direct metaphor is not used metaphorically itself. This means that an external perspective is introduced into the discourse that directly refers to an autonomous source domain referent. Consequently, the source domain is present as a referent in the state of affairs designated by the utterance.
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Yet, as an analyst applying DMIP, we know that the newspaper article is about westerns step 1 of the procedure. Given this information, it appears that the source domain meaning of this metaphorical lexical unit matches the overall topic of the text. That is, one of the key features of a western is that it includes horses e. In this example, lexis from the semantic field of the overall topic of the text is thus used in a figurative way Herrera Soler et al. Both the non-metaphorical source domain meaning and the metaphorical target domain meaning are relevant in the complex referential structure of this example, resulting in some kind of wordplay.
Consequently, a full representation of the referential meaning of the utterance can only be established when this ambiguity is taken into account. The source domain referent is thus part of the referential meaning of the utterance. The fact that it is too soon to say that the western is quickly becoming popular again on television is described in terms of a horse quickly running back to a place where it was before.
In 8 , no such cues are present. On the basis of this target domain meaning, a complete and coherent referential meaning for this example can be constructed, in which the source domain does not play a role. It is vital to report inter-rater reliability scores to show whether the application of a newly introduced identification procedure leads to sufficient agreement among analysts as to what counts as an instance of the phenomenon involved and what not.
Establishing a reliable method yields results that are independent of the analyst who performs the analysis. This makes it possible for other analysts to follow the decision process, and reproduce the results. And this, in turn, creates a uniform basis for discussion and comparison of results.
In the process of developing DMIP, a series of pilot studies were carried out in which three analysts among whom the first author of this paper applied the method to a series of sample sentences from the VUAMC.
These pilots were used to improve DMIP, and each round led to minor adjustments to the method. To then examine whether the version of DMIP as it is presented in the current paper can indeed be considered a reliable method for the identification of potentially deliberate metaphor in discourse, we carried out two reliability tests.
Results of the first reliability test show that the two coders agreed on the classification of these MRWs as either potentially deliberate or non-deliberate in Results of the second reliability test show that the two coders agreed on the classification of the second set of MRWs as potentially deliberate or non-deliberate in These results indicate that the identification of potentially deliberate metaphor in language use can be carried out in a reliable way by means of the method for identifying potentially deliberate metaphor DMIP , which was introduced in this paper.
In this paper, we introduced DMIP, a reliable step-by-step method for the identification of potentially deliberate metaphor in language use. Our reasons for establishing such a method were twofold. Firstly, we aimed to advance the theory of deliberate metaphor DMT; e. As a first step towards the development of DMIP, the theoretical definition of deliberate metaphor of requiring an addressee to move away their attention from a target domain to a source domain Steen was translated into an operational definition.
This operational definition was then used to establish DMIP. On the basis of a series of sample analyses, we have shown that DMIP allows for a broad variety of metaphors to be identified as potentially deliberate. At the same time, the results of the inter-rater reliability test showed that two coders can reliably apply the procedure. We have introduced DMIP as a methodological tool to investigate the underlying semiotic structures of potentially deliberate metaphor.
Such a binary decision yields a coarse-grained picture of the role of metaphor as metaphor in communication between language users that is clearly a reduction of the complexity and wealth of actual language use. However, the binary perspective adopted by DMIP allows for quantitative results in the form of a general overview of the frequency of potentially deliberate as compared to non-deliberate metaphor in language use. It can also be used to investigate how frequent potentially deliberate metaphor is used—and how it is distributed—across a variety of registers and word classes, for instance along the same lines as Steen et al.
That is not to say, however, that all MRWs that are identified as potentially deliberate on the basis of DMIP fit into one homogenous group and the same can be said for non-deliberate metaphors.
Sensory Linguistics: Language, perception and metaphor | Bodo Winter
On the contrary, a wide range of manifestations of metaphorical language use may be identified as potentially deliberate, based on specific cues in metaphorical utterances. However, it is important to note that these examples by no means display the entire range of possible cues. Other features that could serve as cues of potentially deliberate metaphor include, for instance, the recontextualisation of metaphors from one con text to the next Linell ; see Semino et al.
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- DMIP: A Method for Identifying Potentially Deliberate Metaphor in Language Use.
Other cues of potentially deliberate metaphor can be found when applying the procedure to recorded spoken discourse, including paralinguistic features such as intonation and stress, as well as gestures see Cienki This is why it is important to perform the identification of potentially deliberate metaphor in a bottom-up fashion, starting from the data rather than from a set list of features to look for.
Further, detailed, analyses should investigate whether or how the two main categories of potentially deliberate and non-deliberate metaphor can be subdivided into more specific categories. The content provided by the analyst in step 5 of the procedure can be used as a starting point for such analysis. In this step, the analyst is asked to point out how the source domain of the MRW is part of the referential meaning of the utterance.
One of the main consequences of the semiotic approach to deliberate metaphor adopted in this paper is that DMIP does not investigate whether metaphor-related words are processed deliberately as metaphors by individual language users—either addressers or addressees—in communication.
That is, a metaphor may be produced and received as a deliberate metaphor, but asymmetry may also occur, in particular when a metaphor is produced as a deliberate metaphor, but not be received as such, or the other way around see Goatly Whether, when, and under which specific conditions these various ways of processing happen is a question that further psycholinguistic analyses have to investigate.
Such behavioural studies may also shed light on the question whether the metaphors that DMIP identifies as potentially deliberate are indeed processed by means of cross-domain mappings. All of these aspects may play a role in the production, reception, and effects of deliberate metaphor. They should be taken into account if we want to arrive at a fuller understanding of the role and function of metaphor in communication between language users.
However, these are all aspects that cannot be determined on the basis of texts and transcripts of talk alone ; consequently, they do not play a role in the identification procedure proposed in this paper. In DMT, however, predictions about the way in which deliberate versus non-deliberate metaphor is processed are established in connection with theories of text comprehension in discourse psychology e. By contrast, when a metaphor is non-deliberate, the prediction is that only the target domain meaning of the metaphor is activated in the situation model Steen Ultimately, the combination of semiotic and behavioural approaches to potentially deliberate metaphor will lead to a fuller understanding of the role of metaphor in communication, as well as to a fuller developed theory of deliberate metaphor.
By introducing DMIP, in which deliberate metaphor is operationalised from a semiotic perspective, we hope to have contributed to this development in the current paper. Following conventions in cognitive linguistics e. For the sake of clarity, these words are ignored in the current analysis.
However, Goatly does not explicitly distinguish between three dimensions of metaphor in the sense of language, thought, and communication. This shows the importance of not equating conventional metaphor with non-deliberate metaphor, as well as the importance of taking a bottom-up approach when identifying potentially deliberate metaphors in discourse.
Steen et al. In general, however, words and lexical units are the same see Steen et al. In some cases, more than one sense description can be considered a candidate for the basic meaning, for instance because one description is more concrete, while another description is related to bodily action see the criteria for more basic meanings in Pragglejaz Group The contribution of W. Gudrun Reijnierse was supported by Grant No. The authors would like to thank Kiki Y. Renardel de Lavalette for her assistance with reliability coding. Skip to main content Skip to sections. Advertisement Hide.
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